Twinning Types 

Twinnings range from knowledge exchange to adaptation or adoption of the transferred solution and can be grouped into four types. 1. Knowledge exchange and training: targets local authorities which do not have much experience with EU networking but are eager to learn from other regions[27] in Europe. The twinning is seen as a first step to discuss a concrete solution (product, service, methodology) and how it can be transferred to the adopting region(s). 2. Adaptation: Well-established solutions are adapted to the local context (e.g. translation of the contents of an app, prevention programme, etc.). This type of twinning is suitable for multiple adopters, as the adaptation process across adopters is expected to be very similar. 3. Partial adoption: Twinnings that perform partial adoption will have to provide concrete evidence on impact of the adoption, as well as the reasons why a full adoption is not possible (e.g. different healthcare systems, organisational, reimbursement issues, etc.). 4. Full adoption / acquisition: This type of twinning mainly targets local authorities with well established relations with other authorities in Europe (e.g. through memorandums of understanding, past EU project partnerships, etc.) and that have already planned collaboration on a specific topic/solution. The twinning aims to achieve a full adoption of the solution in the adopting region(s) using local infrastructure (including adaptation) or the Twinning Originator’s infrastructure (via acquiring the solution or licensing it using appropriate business models). [27] This is the level to which DHE twinnings refer. Other twinning initiatives may take place on different levels.