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Twinning types

Twinnings can be grouped into five types. Each type is very specific. It has different conditions for its budget, deployment timeframe, and the experts required.

The five types range from ‘knowledge exchange and training’ to ‘acquisition’:

  • Knowledge exchange and training: This type of twinning mainly targets local authorities: they can be authorities that are not too experienced in EU networking, but are eager to learn from other regions in Europe. Here, the twinning provides a first step to discuss a concrete solution (product, service, methodology) and its transfer to the adopting region(s). The twinning is used to build capacity. This includes identifying staff, setting up a process roadmap, and defining expected outcomes
  • Adaptation: This type of twinning is suitable for multiple adopters (i.e., one originator can work with several adopters). The adaptation process across adopters is expected to be very similar. Well-established solutions are adapted to the local context (e.g. translating the contents of a mobile app, introducing a prevention programme).
  • Partial adoption: This type of twinning is suitable for local authorities that wish to implement aspects of an originator’s innovative approach. Twinnings that perform a partial adoption will have to provide concrete evidence on the potential impact of the adoption, as well as the reasons why a full adoption is not possible (e.g. because they have different healthcare systems, organisations, or reimbursement schemes).
  • Full adoption / acquisition: This type of twinning mainly targets local authorities with well established relations with other authorities in Europe (e.g. through memorandums of understanding, past EU project partnerships, etc.) and who have already planned collaboration on a specific topic/solution. The twinning aims to achieve a full adoption of the solution in the adopting region(s) using local infrastructure (including adaptation) or the originator’s infrastructure (via acquiring or licensing it using appropriate business models).

 Examples of types of exchange